In addition to your Works Cited page, precise documentation requires that you include in-text citations.
In-text citations indicate to your readers:
The sources you used in writing the paper
What you derived from each source
Where in the work you found the material
In-text citations generally include the author’s last name and page number. If the author is unknown, use the title of the work. If there are no page numbers, just use the author’s last name or title only.
You must cite a source when:
You use information that is not common knowledge.
What is common knowledge? The United States is in North America.
You use a researcher’s idea that has been published in his/her work. You MUST cite this information even if you have put it in your own words (paraphrased).
You reference a quote.
A Few Notes about In-text Citations:
Use quotes sparingly in your paper—only when it captures exactly what you want to say and you cannot reword it any better. Always include an in-text citation with a quote.
Even if you paraphrase information from a source—put the information in your own words—you need to use an in-text citation. Specific information was borrowed and used from another source. You did not come up with that information on your own.
The last sentence of each paragraph should be your own thoughts and ideas. Do not end a paragraph with an in-text citation.
If you reference the author's name (who is listed in the Works Cited) in a sentence in your report; you do NOT have to repeat his last name in the in-text citation. For example, In his Autobiography, Benjamin Franklin states that he prepared a list of thirteen virtues (135-37).
The citation must clearly point to a specific source in the Works Cited page. Usually, the author’s last name and page number are sufficient.
If two authors have the same last name, include a first initial: (B. Smith 10).
If the same author has more than one book listed in the Works Cited, include the title of the book, in whole or in part (if it is a long title), after the author’s last name: (Smith, Global History 12).
What if there are many authors listed in the Works Cited page for one work?
You may list all their names: (Johnson, Elliott, Thomas, Ulesky, and Grant) –OR— list the first last name followed by et al (Johnson et al).
Examples of In-text Citations and their Corresponding Works Cited Entries
Citing a book with an author:
Some schools have been known to cut their physical education programs (Heller 11-12).
Citation: Heller, Tania. Overweight: A Handbook for Teens and Parents. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2005
Citing an internet source with an author:
A majority of childhood obesity is due to environmental factors, only a small percent of children are obese because of genetics (Moran).
Citation: Moran, Rebecca. “Evaluation and Treatment of Childhood Obesity.” American Academy of Family Physician, 15 February 1999. www.aafp.org/ afp/990215ap/861.html. Accessed 18 May 2006.
Citing an internet source without an author:
“Almost two-thirds of U.S. adults are overweight or obese, and an alarming 15% of children aged 6-19 years are overweight” (“Toolkit for Childhood…”).
Citation: “Toolkit for Childhood Obesity Intervention.” American Public Health Association, 2002. www.apha.org/ppp/ obesity_toolkit /001_introduction.htm.Accessed 16 May 2006
Approximately, 95% of television food advertisements are for unhealthy snack foods (“The Debate…”).
Citation: “The Debate: Advertising to Children.” Ecologist, April 2004, pp. 16-20. SIRs Researcher. Accessed 17 May 2006.
Citing a magazine article with an author:
The author states, “Kids will learn to make healthful food and drink choices if they have access to them and are motivated to do so” (Spake 35).
Citation: Spake, Amanda. “Learning about Fat: Tackling Childhood Obesity in the Schools.” U.S. News and World Report, 11 October 2004, pp. 35-36
Citing a magazine article without an author:
The children’s television program, Sesame Street, is now trying to promote healthier eating to its young viewers (“Monster Makeover” 11).
Citation: “Monster Makeover.” The Progressive, June 2005, p. 11
Citing a newspaper article with an author:
The author maintains that pediatricians believe there is a link between soda consumption, childhood obesity and diabetes (Stowe B3).
Citation: Stowe, Stacey. “To some in Hartford, Coke is a real evil thing.” The New York Times, 7 April 2006, p. B3.
Citing a newspaper article without an author:
Parents are the first line of defense in fighting the advertisement industry (“Selling Junk Food…” A26).
Citation: “Selling Junk Food to Toddlers.” The New York Times, 23 February 2006, p. A26
Citing two sources with the same title:
Students, parents, food service staff, educators, and community leaders will be involved in assessing the school's eating environment, developing a shared vision and an action plan to achieve it (“Childhood Obesity,” American). One child in five is overweight (“Childhood Obesity,” National).
Citations: “Childhood Obesity.” American Obesity Association, 2 May 2005, www.obesity.org/subs/childhood. Accessed 18 May 2006.
“Childhood Obesity.” National Instititutes of Health (NIH), June 2002, www.nih.gov/news. Accessed 18 May 2006.